Spherical Harmonics seem really hard. Most articles are equation heavy, and if you’ve not understood the equations before, seeing them again doesn’t help. Despite reading a lot about them, the first time things fell into place was when I finally found some example code I could throw some numbers at and then visualize the results. In this post I aim to cover the fundamentals of using Spherical Harmonics without the use of equations and maybe just a little code.

## What are they really?

The simplest way to think of Spherical Harmonics (SH from here on in) is in terms of what you would use them for. If you have some value that varies based on direction, say for example, the effect of a light at a specific position, then you can sample it in every possible direction and store it using SH. The values are stored as an approximation so they’re quite diffuse aka blurry; you won’t be using them as ray-traced reflections.

You have choice at the level of detail at which you store the values since SH is an infinite series, so you cut it off at bands. Bands are zero indexed, and each band B adds 2B + 1 values to the series. Bands are gathered by order, where order O means the sum of all bands up to O-1*, so order 1 requires 1 value, order 2 needs 4 and order 3 needs 9 – which is typically where most implementations stop. This is because the coefficient used when applying the 3rd band is zero, so the data is somewhat redundant in this case. Then you can consider what the values actually mean at each band; the single value for band 0 could be used as ambient occlusion term and the three values for band 1 could be considered something like a bent normal. Each subsequent band adds detail.

And then, once you have your SH coefficients, you can add, scale and rotate them. Adding means that you can accumulate the effects of multiple lights, scaling means that you can lerp between different values, for example at different points, and rotation means that you can easily move your SH into the space of your model rather than transforming per vertex or per pixel normals to the same space as the SH.

For an example of what you can do with SH, I’ve created a ShaderToy example which demonstrates some of the results you can get with SH. Here’s an image:

In this image you can see the following applications of SH:

- Top left : Order 2 Directional light SH. Note the diffuse appearance. If you follow the ShaderToy link, this alternates with error with a standard dot().
- Top right : Order 3 Directional light SH. Note that this is less diffuse than the order 2. If you follow the ShaderToy link, this alternates with error with a standard dot().
- Low left : Order 2 Spherical light SH.
- Low right : Order 3 Spherical light SH.

*My understanding here is based on Peter-Pike Sloan’s SH Tricks.

## What to read first

The canonical and most quoted reference I’ve seen is the Robin Green Spherical Harmonic Lighting: The Gritty Details paper. It takes a couple of reads to gain a full understanding but makes a good basis for most of the content that you read afterwards. I started here and read it 3 times.

Next I read Tom Forsyth’s presentation from GDCE 2003. It’s easy to understand (along with the followup notes) and shows some practical examples of real world use. There’s some important ideas in the slides that have been taken and advanced upon over the last decade:

- You can bake the distant lights that your lighting model can’t handle into SH and add them on.
- Convert High Dynamic Range skyboxes to SH to provide diffuse environmental lighting.
- Calculate the SH at points in the environment and use them to provide local detail to the lighting.

## Show me the Code!

For me, everything started to fall into place when I saw some code because I find code easier to understand and experiment with. About a year ago, Chuck Walbourn posted the parts of the D3DXMath library lost when moving to the DirectXMath library, including the source to D3DXSH-like functions. That page is worth keeping open thanks to the links to the MSN documentation for the D3DXSH versions of the functions.

Starting with XMSHEvalDirectionalLight(), I evaluated my first 3rd order SH representation of a directional light pointing up the Y axis, then I used XMSHEvalDirection() to convert my test Y axis vector to a 3rd order SH direction and then dotted the two values together XMSHDot(). Outside of SH, I’d expect this dot to return 1.0f, but with my SH code, I got 2.1176472 and that’s not some special SH thing turned up to 11, I was just doing it wrong. Here’s the code:

const unsigned int c_shOrder = 3; XMVECTORF32 lightDir = {0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f}; XMVECTORF32 lightColor = {1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f}; float evalledLight[c_shOrder * c_shOrder]; XMSHEvalDirectionalLight(c_shOrder, lightDir, lightColor, evalledLight, NULL, NULL); XMVECTORF32 normal = {0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f}; float dir[c_shOrder * c_shOrder]; XMSHEvalDirection(dir, c_shOrder, normal); float result = XMSHDot(c_shOrder, dir, evalledLight);

It took a while to find Stephen Hill’s (@self_shadow) code in his comment on Seb Lagarde’s blog post about the use of pi in game lighting which applies the exact same functions to generate the SH representation of the light and normal but uses a custom dot with coefficients per band `{1.0f, 2.0f/3.0f, 1.0f/4.0f}`

(it’s the 4th value in that array that would be zero). Updating the code to use that custom dot gives the expected 1.0f – win! Looking at the code, the per-band coefficients could even be baked into the SH representation of the light, but I’ve only seen it done once, earlier in the Seb Lagarde blog post – look for ConvolveCosineLobeBandFactor.

Digging further into the code from Chuck you can also find analytical lights such as Spherical lights (good for faking volumes), Conical lights and Hemispherical lights (good for blue up, green down) as well as support for projecting a D3D11 cubemap into SH – SHProjectCubeMap() – which was the beast I was after.

## Cubemaps eh?

With a function like SHProjectCubeMap() you can convert a cubemap into spherical harmonics, a topic covered by a paper called Coefficients for each band: An Efﬁcient Representation for Irradiance Environment Maps by Ravi Ramamoorthi and Pat Hanrahan. This paper is the foundation of techniques regarding converting environment maps such as cubemaps to SH and it highlights the low error rate when using 3rd order SH.

Using a technique like this gives you a diffuse representation of that cubemap that you can use for global or local lighting. In the global case, you’d take your skybox texture, convert to SH and use it to add a little extra to your lighting. In the local case, you can calculate a local cubemap or cubemaps at runtime, convert to SH and use that for more local diffuse lighting – if you have enough local samples you can consider that an irradiance volume, first discussed in this paper in 1998.

If you want to look further at irradiance volumes, it’s worth having a look at Natalya Tatarchuk’s GDCE 05 Irradiance Volumes for Games presentation which gives a high level overview of the techniques and covers material from the aforementioned irradiance volume paper and also discusses irradiance gradients to improve the results of calculating the irradiance inbetween samples.

Even more practical information can be found in a post about production use of irradiance volumes from Steve Anichini (@solid_angle). Reading this after Natalya’s presentation, I could see the reasoning behind the decisions made. I especially liked the idea of calculating a local irradiance gradient for each dynamic object.

## Further Reading

There’s a lot of detail on Spherical Harmonics all over the internet. As Tom Forsyth’s presentation mentioned, always search for “irradiance” along with “spherical harmonics” because of the wide range of applications for spherical harmonics. I’d also recommend searching for “games” at the same time since that’s where a lot of the realtime ideas are covered.

Peter-Pike Sloan’s publication on Stupid Spherical Harmonics (SH) Tricks is a useful reference for a lot of the additional things you can do with SH. It’s very commonly referenced when discussing practical use of SH.

SIGGRAPH 2005 had a course on Precomputed Radiance Transfer: Theory and Practice.

The presentation Adding Spherical Harmonic Lighting to the Sushi Engine by Chris Oat mostly covers Precomputed Radiance Transfer when it was very popular in the mid 2000’s with an SH chaser at the end.

At GDC 2008, Manny Ko from Naughty Dog and Jerome Ko from UCSD / Bunkspeed presented Practical Spherical Harmonics based PRT Methods. There’s some covering the same old ground to start with, but the meat of the presentation is Manny Ko’s description of the compression of SH data. With the increasing number of ops/byte available on modern GPUs and access to real integer instructions, considering compression like this is a great idea.

If you want to go above order 3, i.e. straight to 5 skipping that zeroed out 4th order, then obtaining the coefficients can be difficult. Spherical harmonics, WTF? on the I’m doing it wrong blog has the required numbers multiplied by pi. The origin of the coefficients is another Ravi Ramamoorthi and Pat Hanrahan paper – Equation 19 in On the relationship between radiance and irradiance: determining the illumination from images of a convex Lambertian object – referenced from their environment map paper. Those equations are also included on Simon Brown’s Spherical Harmonics Basis Functions post.

For an example of what you can do with the accumulation of SH, take a look at another post from Steve Anichini – Screen Space Spherical Harmonic Lighting. In this post, he uses SH to accumulate light influences per pixel at quarter res and then extracts a dominant light (covered in Peter-Pike Sloan’s Stupid Spherical Harmonics (SH) Tricks) to perform the lighting. The results look good if a little diffuse. I’d be interested to know what the results would be with higher order SH.

At SIGGRAPH 2008, Hao Chen from Bungie and Xinguo Liu from Zhejiang University presented the Lighting and Material of Halo3 (I remember attending this too). The first half of the talk covers their use of SH lightmaps and gives a set of practical ideas about how to pack, compress and optimize the lightmaps. The second half is less SH and more material focused.

Guerrilla’s Develop 2007 presentation on Deferred Rendering in Killzone 2 includes a few slides (24/25) on image based lighting where each object receives SH lighting from artist placed probes. The lighting is represented by an 8×8 environment map calculated on the SPUs.

For really in-depth details about more real world use in game engines, take a look at:

- Shading in Valve’s Source Engine – using their own basis which is an even more diffuse approximation.
- Light Propagation Volumes in CryEngine 3 – using SH as part of their GI approximation.
- Deferred Radiance Transfer Volumes – the GI solution for Far Cry 3.

## Call to Arms

Now that there’s code more easily available, I think that Spherical Harmonics are much more accessible to everyone without needing a library bound to a specific rendering API.